We are fascinated by nature and we try to understand it.
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Humans always investigated the world with the means that were available: expeditions, mapping and survey projects, as well as experiments have led to new insights, which have frequently proved controversial. The more we know about nature, the more we want to use the resources provided by it. One example of this development is the German Continental Deep Drilling Program, which was conducted between and and ended with a 9, meter borehole: the deepest in Germany and one of the deepest on Earth.
Although it was dedicated to basic research on climate and seismic activity, scientists, politicians, and companies hoped that this project would also provide insights into the location of mineral deposits and sources of geothermal energy. Urban nature has developed into a typical and new form of nature shaped by humans. Urban ecosystems today are often more biodiverse than rural habitats of past eras: foxes, tawny owls, and raccoons are no longer an unusual sight in Munich or Berlin.
As cities expand they replace important ecosystems. Photo created by Mathias Walendy. Bees suffer considerably from the destruction of their natural habitats and from monocultures and climate change. But bees are important. Albert Einstein thought that if bees vanished, humankind would perish within four years. The reason for this assumption is that if bees become extinct, many plants will lack pollinators and also become extinct; as a consequence humans and animals will die.
In China, whole swaths of land are now pollenized by people instead of insects.
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Some cities are trying to counteract this development: in Munich, for instance, beehives have been installed on the rooftop of the Gasteig and the Deutsches Museum. Birds, too, are struggling: every seventh bird species is threatened with extinction; in Germany out of local breeding birds are threatened. Rural Sociology Chandler, D. Beyond neoliberalism: resilience, the new art of governing complexity.
Resilience Cherry, M. Beyond profit: rethinking corporate social responsibility and greenwashing after the BP oil disaster. Tulane Law Review Christmann, P. Academy of Management Journal Clarke, S. Scientific imperialism and the proper relations between the sciences. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science Cole, M. Lindeque, C. Halsband, and T. Microplastics as contaminants in the marine environment: a review.
Marine Pollution Bulletin Collins, R. Interaction ritual chains.
Cooper, M. Complexity theory after the financial crisis: the death of neoliberalism or the triumph of Hayek? Journal of Cultural Economy Cote, M. Resilience thinking meets social theory: situating social change in socio-ecological systems SES research. Cox, R. Social forces, states and world orders: beyond international relations theory. Millennium Cretney, R. Grass-roots autonomous activism in shaping discourses of resilience and transformation following disaster. Crutzen, P. Albedo enhancement by stratospheric sulfur injections: a contribution to resolve a policy dilemma?
Climatic Change Cumming, G. Cumming, and C. Scale mismatches in social-ecological systems: causes, consequences, and solutions. Ecology and Society 11 1 Depoliticizing public action by politicizing issues, practices and actors. The role of resilience thinking in a program of the Cariplo Foundation. Partecipazione e Conflitto Dessler, D. International Organization Devia, G. Ganasri, and G.
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A review on hydrological models. Aquatic Procedia DiMaggio, P. The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields.
Nature and Human Society: The Quest for a Sustainable World | The National Academies Press
American Sociological Review Douglas, M. Risk and culture: an essay on the selection of technical and environmental dangers. Dupre, J. Reflections on biology and culture. Pages in J. Sheehan and M. Sosna, editors. Boundaries of humanity: humans, animals, machines.
Against scientific imperialism. Human nature and the limits of science. Fainstein, S. Resilience and justice. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Faran, T. Geoengineering: neither economical, nor ethical—a risk—reward nexus analysis of carbon dioxide removal. Fligstein, N. A theory of fields. Friedrichs, J.
Peak energy and climate change: the double bind of post-normal science. Futures Geels, F. Berkhout, and D. Bridging analytical approaches for low-carbon transitions. Nature Climate Change Giddens, A. Central problems in social theory: action, structure and contradiction in social analysis. Palgrave, London, UK. Gioli, G. Khan, S. Bisht, and J. Migration as an adaptation strategy and its gendered implications: a case study from the Upper Indus Basin.
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Mountain Research and Development Goldring, L. The power of status in transnational social fields. Pages in M. Smith and L. Guarnizo, editors. Transnationalism from below. Guerry, A. Polasky, J. Lubchenco, R. Chaplin-Kramer, G. Daily, R. Griffin, M. Ruckelshaus, I. Bateman, A. Duraiappah, T. Elmqvist, et al. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: from promise to practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Harnesk, D. Adding fuel to the fire: north-south dynamics in the geographies of transport energy: the case of EU biofuels.