To date, the Agency has safeguards agreements with more than States. The United Nations helps to clear landmines in some 30 countries or territories, including Afghanistan, Colombia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Libya and the Sudan.
Landmines kill or maim thousands of civilians every year. The UN also teaches people how to stay out of harm's way, helps victims to become self-sufficient, assists countries in destroying stockpiled landmines and advocates for full international participation in treaties related to landmines. The United Nations pursues global disarmament and arms limitation as central to peace and security.
It works to reduce and eventually eliminate nuclear weapons, destroy chemical weapons, strengthen the prohibition against biological weapons, and halt the proliferation of landmines, small arms and light weapons. At the local level, UN peacekeepers often work to implement disarmament agreements between warring parties.
In El Salvador, Sierra Leone, Liberia and elsewhere, this has entailed demobilizing combat forces as well as collecting and destroying their weapons as part of an overall peace agreement. Governments coordinate their counter-terrorism efforts through the United Nations. In , they adopted at the UN the first-ever global strategy to counter terrorism. UN agencies and programmes have helped countries to put in practice the global strategy, providing legal assistance and promoting international cooperation against terrorism.
The UN has also put in place a legal framework to combat terrorism. Fourteen global agreements have been negotiated under UN auspices, including treaties against hostage-taking, aircraft hijacking, terrorist bombings, terrorism financing and nuclear terrorism. The United Nations brought about the first-ever treaty to combat genocide—acts committed with the intent to destroy a national, ethnical, racial or religious group.
The Genocide Convention has been ratified by States, which commit to prevent and punish actions of genocide in war and in peacetime. The UN tribunals for Yugoslavia and Rwanda, as well as UN-supported courts in Cambodia, have put would-be genocide perpetrators on notice that such crimes would no longer be tolerated.
Birth of the United Nations
The Holocaust and the United Nations Outreach Programme seeks to remind the world of the lessons to be learnt from the Holocaust in order to help to prevent future acts of genocide. Rape has increasingly been used as a weapon of war.
An estimated 60, women were raped during the civil war in Sierra Leone , up to 60, in the former Yugoslavia , up to , during the genocide in Rwanda , more than 40, in Liberia and at least , in the Democratic Republic of the Congo since Sexual violence has characterized conflicts from Afghanistan to Iraq and from Somalia to Syria.
The United Nations has devoted its attention and resources to promoting living standards and human skills and potential throughout the world. Since , this work has been guided by the Millennium Development Goals. Virtually all funds for UN development assistance come from contributions donated by countries. For instance, the UN Development Programme UNDP , with staff in countries, supports more than 4, projects to reduce poverty, promote good governance, address crises and preserve the environment.
The World Bank provides developing countries with loans and grants, and has supported more than 12, projects in more than countries since Currently IFAD supports more than programmes and projects in countries. Africa continues to be a high priority for the United Nations. All UN agencies have special programmes to benefit Africa. UN Women is the UN organization dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women.
Development as Human Right: An Unfulfilled Promise to Billions | Inter Press Service
A global champion for women and girls, UN Women seeks to accelerate progress on meeting their needs worldwide. UN Women supports countries as they set global standards for achieving gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to design laws, policies, programmes and services needed to implement these standards. The United Nations is good for business.
It has laid the groundwork for investment in developing economies by promoting stability and good governance, battling corruption and urging sound economic policies and business-friendly legislation. It helps countries to manage the process of globalization smoothly and to reduce poverty. The goal of universal food security —where people everywhere have regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives—is at the heart of its work. FAO acts as a neutral forum, where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy.
FAO also helps developing countries to modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices in ways that conserve natural resources and improve nutrition. It has negotiated international commodity agreements to ensure fair prices for developing countries, improved the efficiency of their trade infrastructure and helped them to diversify their production and to integrate into the global economy. The International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank have helped many countries to improve their economic management, provided temporary financial assistance to countries to help ease balance-of-payment difficulties and offered training for government finance officials.
UN agencies have been responsible for setting standards for aviation and shipping. It sets standards and regulations for the safety, security, efficiency and environmental soundness of air travel. International aviation is the first industry sector with global goals of stabilizing carbon emissions at levels and achieving a 2 per cent annual increase in fuel efficiency.
ICAO has contributed to making air travel the safest mode of transportation. In , when 21 million travelled by air, were killed in aircraft accidents; in , the number of deaths was out of 3. The International Maritime Organization IMO has helped to make the seas cleaner and shipping—which serves about 90 per cent of global trade—safer and more secure. IMO measures cover all aspects of international shipping—including ship design, construction, equipment, manning, operation and disposal.
With the help of IMO, ship losses have fallen and fatalities decreased; pollution incidents—including total oil pollution—are down; and air pollution and pollution from sewage are being addressed. These improvements are taking place even as the amount of cargo carried by sea continues to increase: the total of goods transported by ship reached 9. The Convention on the Rights of the Child has become law in nearly all countries.
Cities are now home to half of humankind. They are the hub for much national production and consumption—economic and social processes that generate wealth and opportunity. But they also are places of disease, crime, pollution and poverty.
Human rights and development
In many cities in developing countries, slum-dwellers number more than 50 per cent of the population and have little or no access to shelter, water and sanitation. These include providing security of tenure for the urban poor, which is in turn a catalyst for investment in housing and basic services for the poor. The Universal Postal Union UPU facilitates the exchange of international mail and develops social, cultural and commercial communications between peoples and businesses with up-to-date postal services and products.
The world's , post offices form one of the most extensive global networks, facilitating the transfer of information, goods and money. The Internet and new technologies have opened new opportunities for postal services, especially in the area of e-commerce and online shopping.
Postal services remain a critical bridge between physical, digital and financial operations and are a key partner for global development. The International Telecommunication Union ITU brings together Governments and industry to develop and coordinate the operation of global telecommunication networks and services. It has coordinated shared use of the radio spectrum, promoted international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, worked to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world and negotiated the global standards that ensure the seamless interconnection of a vast range of communications systems.
Human Rights in China
From broadband Internet to the latest-generation wireless technologies, from air and sea navigation to radio astronomy and satellite-based meteorology, from phone services to TV broadcasting and next-generation networks, ITU is committed to connecting the world. International tourism arrivals reached 1. The World Tourism Organization is the UN agency responsible for the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism. It generates market knowledge, promotes competitive and sustainable tourism policies, fosters tourism education and training, and works to make tourism a tool for development through technical assistance projects in over countries.
Its Global Code of Ethics for Tourism seeks to maximize the benefits of tourism while minimizing its negative impact. Volunteerism can transform the pace and nature of development, and benefits both society and the individual volunteer. UNV deploys close to 8, experienced women and men of nearly nationalities every year. Working in more than countries, these volunteers support development projects and work in peacekeeping and humanitarian operations. More than 75 per cent of them come from developing countries, and about a third work as volunteers in their own countries.
The United Nations is at the forefront of research that seeks solutions to global problems. The UN Population Division is a leading source of information and research on global population trends, producing up-to-date demographic estimates and projections. The UN Statistics Division is the hub of the global statistical system, compiling and disseminating global economic, demographic, social, gender, environment and energy statistics.
- Development as Human Right: An Unfulfilled Promise to Billions.
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- The Mayan Codex (Antichrist Trilogy, Book 2).
- A Unified Theory of Happiness: An East-Meets-West Approach to Fully Loving Your Life.
- Late Mark Spitfire Aces 1942–45.
Little girls from a local hill tribe laugh on a swing set in Sapa, Viet Nam. Today 84 per cent of adults can read and write and 91 per cent of children attend primary school. The goal now is to ensure that by all children complete a full course of primary school. Programmes aimed at promoting education and advancement for women helped to raise the global adult female literacy rate to The next goal is to ensure that by all girls complete primary and secondary school.
It has negotiated international conventions to preserve cultural property, cultural diversity and outstanding cultural and natural sites.