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Gastroenterology 96 , — Kaneko, T. Growth stimulator for bifidobacteria produced by Propionibacterium freudenreichii and several intestinal bacteria. Dairy Sci. Xie, S. Biodegradation of malathion by Acinetobacter johnsonii MA19 and optimization of cometabolism substrates. China 21 , 76—82 Flint, H.
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Care Med. These mice demonstrated adipose tissue inflammation characterized by increased leukocyte recruitment visualized by intravital microscopy and infiltration of mast cells, macrophages and regulatory T cells in the stroma. The metabolic changes in adipose tissue of allergic animals were represented by increased glucose uptake and lipolysis in adipocytes, resulting in atrophy of these cells. Changes were also seen in systemic metabolism characterized by decreased serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and free fatty acids in allergic mice.
Based on our results, we conclude that food allergy induces adipose tissue inflammation by producing mediators that lead to atrophy of this tissue. The decrease in adipose tissue mass has systemic consequences and results in loss of body weight. Respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing, a gasping sound when breathing in, and wheezing. Two or more other symptoms of possible anaphylaxis such as angioedema, hives, and nausea or other digestive symptoms.
Because symptoms can quickly become life threatening, treatment is begun immediately, without waiting for tests to be done. If symptoms are mild, the diagnosis can be confirmed by blood or urine tests, which measure levels of substances produced during allergic reactions. However, these tests are usually unnecessary. Avoiding the allergen is the best prevention. People who are allergic to certain unavoidable allergens such as insect stings may benefit from long-term allergen immunotherapy. People who have these reactions should always carry a self-injecting syringe of epinephrine.
If they encounter a trigger for example, if they are stung by an insect or if they start to develop symptoms, they should immediately inject themselves.
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Usually, this treatment stops the reaction, at least temporarily. Nonetheless, after a severe allergic reaction and immediately after injecting themselves, such people should go to the hospital emergency department, where they can be closely monitored and treatment can be adjusted as needed.
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People should also wear a medical alert bracelet with their allergies listed on it. In emergencies, doctors immediately give epinephrine by injection under the skin, into a muscle, or sometimes into a vein or bone.
A second injection of epinephrine may be needed. If the person's blood pressure is very low, epinephrine may be given through the breathing tube. Low blood pressure often returns to normal after epinephrine is given. If it does not, fluids are given intravenously to increase the volume of blood. Sometimes people are also given drugs that cause blood vessels to narrow vasoconstrictors and thus help increase blood pressure.
Antihistamines such as diphenhydramine and histamine-2 H2 blockers such as cimetidine are given intravenously until symptoms disappear. If needed, beta-agonists that are inhaled such as albuterol are given to widen the airways, reduce wheezing, and help with breathing. A corticosteroid is sometimes given to help prevent symptoms from recurring several hours later, although whether this treatment is necessary is unclear. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world.
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